Glossary

Abrasion
Special endoscopic treatment - freshening the bony end plate of a painful disc

 Anulus fibrosus
The anulus fibrosus ist is the cartilage ring around the disc, which encloses the nucleus pulposus, the jelly­like core of the disc.

Black Disk
The Signal loss an MRI (T2 sequence) due to the dehydration of a pathological disc generates the image of a dark disc and is often correlated with the clinical symptom of back pain

BSG
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Inflammation is a sensitive parameter. Is detected in the blood, e.g. in cases of suspected infection

Cage
The Cage (Cage) is a stable implant. To-day there Diess implants e.g. of metal (titanium), PEEK, and very rarely only of carbon. It acts as a disc replacement and is used to maintain the natural disc height and stabilize the spine. It grows together after implantation with the adjacent vertebral bodies, forming a block vertebra.

Cervical
the cervical (neck) spine

CRP
C-reactive protein is a sensitive parameter of inflammation. Is detected in the blood, e.g. in cases of suspected infection

CT
The computed tomography is a digital X-ray based diagnostic technique allowing the creation and analysis of 3-dimensional images of human anatomy

Decompression
Decompression is a microsurgical technique for the treatment of spinal stenosis. Bones and ligaments compressing nerves and spinal canal are removed to achieve pain relief and to cure neurological deficits.

Disc herniation See disc prolaps

Discography
Using CT or fluoroscopy, contrast agents are injected into the disc to analyze its structure and to get information about pain sensitivity. In combination with a pressure test by use of a manometer, pathological discs can be identified as the source of back pain (e.g., correlated to black disc in MRI).

Disc prolapse
The cartilage ring of the disc (anulus fibrosus) tears and the jelly-like core of the disc (nucleus pulposus) herniates into the spinal canal.

Disc prosthesis
A disc prosthesis is a synthetic substitute for a degenerated disc. lt stabilizes the spine and ensures its fiexibility.

Disc protrusion
The cartilage ring of the disc (anulus fibrosus) protrudes, but it does not tear like in case of a disc prolapse.

Endoscopic surgery
Minimally invasive percutaneous surgical technique to treat herniations at every level of lumbar spine

Epidural
Anatomical space between bone and dura in the spinal canal

Facet joint
Facet joints are small articulations between adjacent vertebrae, the osseous elements of spine.

Fixateur
A metal implant for the stabilization of spinal segments

Foramen
The foramen is a canal between vertebrae through which nerve roots pass.

Herniation/herniated disc See disc prolapse

Kyphoplasty
Surgical technique to treat painful vertebrae compression fracture. The vertebral body is dilated with a balloon and filled with cement (see also vertebroplasty).

Leukocytes
If the white blood cells. Increases e.g. on infection.

Ligamentum flavum
The ligamentum flavum is a bond between the vertebral arches, which helps, inter alia, straighten the spine.

Liquor
Cerebrospinal fluid. CSF is a brain and spinal fluid, which mainly serves to cushion the brain and spinal cord.

Listhesis = Olisthesis
Hypernym for the movement of vertebral bodies due to an instability of facet joints (pseudo­spondylolisthesis) or abnormal space dose to the facet joint (spondylolisthesis)

Lumbar
The lumbar spine

Lumboischialgia
Description for the symptom of back pain and pain radiation into one or two legs

Microsurgery
Modern neurosurgical technique using a microscope and small instruments to minimize surgical damage

Microtherapy
Minimally invasive interventions that' are practiced through very small tubes with the help of drugs and laser. Microtherapy is CT- or X-ray-guided and, therefore, can be supervised very accurately.

Minimally invasive
Treatments and surgery are minimally invasive if they cause sparsely damage and, therefore, only merely strain human body.

MRI
By means of magnetic resonance imaging, employing magnetic fields and radio signals, very high definition sectional images of human anatomy are created, which are compiled to 3D images.

Myelography
During myelography a contrast agent is injected into the dura to examine spinal canal, nerve roots and spinal cord.

Nucleus pulposus
The inner jelly-like core of a disc, surrounded by a cartilage ring (anulus fibrosus)

Osteoporosis
Loss of bone substance and structure, which often occurs age-related and mainly in woman or after long­lasting steroid therapy.

Paresis
Loss of funtion of extremities or other nerve and muscular functions

Percutaneous
In surgery pecutaneous implies that operations are practiced without larger incisions, e.g., through small tubes (see endoscopic surgery) that were previously installed.

Periradicular
Around the nerve root

Plegia
A paralysis of a body part or body portion.

Pseudo
unreal, like

Pseudospondylolisthesis
Pseudospondylolisthesis is a kind of listhesis as a result of wear (see also spondylolisthesis).

Sciatica, sciatic nerve
Sciatica is caused by an irritation or damage of the sciatic nerve, the biggest human nerve, which reaches from lumbar spine to the lower thigh. Sciatica causes pain radiation into one or two legs.

Segment
Is composed of two vertebrae and an intervertebral disc (motion segment)

Sequester
A sequester is herniated disc tissue (nucleus pulposus) that has protruded into the spinal canal or the fora men.

Slipped disc See disc prolapse

Spacer
A spacer is a metal implant that is implanted to remove symptoms arising from spinal stenosis.

Spinal canal
Tube containing nerve roots and spinal cord

Spondylodesis
Spondylodesis is a surgical fusion of spine/stiffening of the spine, employing screws, plates, cages and bone graft for stabilizing spine in case of instability.

Spondylodiszitis
Bacterial infection which affects disc and adjoing vertebral bodies.

Spondylolisthesis
Spondylolisthesis is a kind of listhesis as a result of an innate spinal instability (see also pseudospondylolisthesis).

Stenosis
Narrowing, e.g., of the spinal canal or the foramen

Surgery
The craft, craftsmanship

TESSYS
Transforamonal Endoscopic Spine System

Traumatology
Surgical - Surgical treatment of wounds and injuries (soft tissue and bone)

Vertebra
Osseous part of the spine consisting of vertebral body, vertebral arch, transverse processes, spinous process and condyloid process

Vertebroplasty
Surgical percutaneous method to treat painful compression fracture. The natura) spongy cavities are filled with cement (see also kyphoplasty).